Appium automation testing aids in accelerated and more precise testing. It is a useful method for determining whether new mobile applications have bugs and whether they function properly on a variety of mobile operating systems and devices. Appium automation testing ensures that mobile applications are high-performing and meet users’ rising expectations. Additionally, it evaluates a new application’s capacity to communicate with other applications.
Mobile applications are constantly emerging around the globe to simplify everyday life. These applications have become crucial parts of people’s lives because they offer convenient ways to complete activities like bill payment, flight booking, chatting, shopping, etc
Therefore testing these apps is essential to evaluate that they are of high quality, usable, and functioning well before they become available for users. As the number of devices and operating systems increases, it becomes more vital and more challenging to guarantee seamless performance across many platforms.
To successfully meet the requirements, it is crucial to have a testing process that is not only fast but also has more thorough coverage. Naturally, the best option to satisfy these needs is automated app testing. When it comes to mobile automation, Appium is the first to step in.
In this article, we’ll talk about how to set up the desired Appium capabilities. Before doing that, it’s crucial to briefly go over what Appium is and how it functions. So let’s begin.
Appium framework automated testing for three main types of mobile apps. They are-
Native mobile apps- These apps are platform-specific applications created and used in Android, iOS, or Windows SDKs. Navigating a web browser is not an option in these apps.
Hybrid Mobile Applications- Hybrid mobile applications are those that can function well on a specific platform and still have features for using a web browser. These are mobile apps having a native wrapper around the web’s view, enabling interaction with web content.
Mobile web apps- Mobile web browsers like Chrome and Safari are used to access the web apps. These apps can also be accessible through native browsers that are built into Android and iOS devices.
How Appium Operates
Appium is a Node. Js-based HTTP server that uses the Webdriver JSON wire protocol to drive iOS and Android sessions. The client, server, and end device are the three main elements of Appium’s design. To facilitate communication with the client, it additionally installs an HTTP server on the PC that exposes the REST API.
The server and client communicate with one another via the JSON Wire Protocol. It enables the execution of command and connection requests received from the client on end devices (either iOS, Android, or Windows).
Appium operating on an Android device
Appium leverages the UIAutomator framework (also known as Selendroid) to automatically test Android apps. An Android native UI automation framework called UIAutomator enables running Junit test cases directly from the device’s command line. Despite being built in Java, Appium may be executed from any language that supports WebDriver.
Appium operating on an iOS device
Appium uses the JSON wire protocol for iOS devices as it does for Android devices. The UIAutomation API framework for iOS is used in the same way that UIAutomator is used by Android to interact with user interface elements during automated iOS device testing. The same libraries are used by Appium to automate iOS apps.
After going over some of the fundamentals of Appium, let’s move on to talking about the desired capabilities for Appium.
Appium’s desired capabilities
A desired capability is a library-defined package; it is sometimes referred to as the JSON Wire Protocol. Client and server communication is carried out via the JSON Wire Protocol. The keys and values contained in a JSON object are called desired capabilities. They are used to inform the Appium drivers about the automation session that the testers are interested in. They also aid in changing the server’s behavior during automation.
To put it briefly, desired capabilities are a set of key-value pairs that can be used to send any desired request or to maintain any desired session with the server.
Why do we require desired capabilities?
Desired Capabilities are required to guarantee that each testing scenario is executed on the appropriate testing platform. The testing environment could be a web browser, a mobile device, a mobile emulator, a mobile simulator, etc. This is crucial for web apps in particular because the testing environment can have a big impact on the test’s outcomes. The test script’s environment will be specified by the Desired Capabilities Class, which also assists the testers in managing session requests with the server.
In addition to ensuring that their automated tests are operating as intended, this helps them save time and resources. Additionally, testers can pinpoint any potential problems or flaws in the application with greater speed and accuracy.
Appium provides several Capabilities. We will first go through Appium’s general capabilities before moving on to a few typical Android and iOS desired capabilities one at a time.
Common Appium Capabilities
The common capabilities can be applied to any platform that Appium users are automating. Below is a discussion of some of the most widely utilized Appium capabilities, regardless of the working platform.
Depending on which platform is being automated, this capability provides the target platform name, which can be either iOS or Android. It is necessary to equip Appium with this capability.
To automate the application, this capability tells Appium which Appium driver to utilize. It must be configured to perform the tests because it is a necessary capability. When any of the accessible option classes are used, this capability and platformName are automatically configured.
The target mobile operating system version is stored in this capability. It is a choice-based ability. If provided, it will assist Appium in focusing its search for the appropriate device.
When automating a native or hybrid application, this capability can be used to set the path to the.apk file on the system for Android, the route to the .ipa file for an actual iOS device, or the path to the.app.zip / app file for an iOS simulator. This app binary will first be installed on the proper device via Appium. It should be noted that if users select the (appPackage) and (appActivity) capabilities, this capability is not necessary for Android. Additionally, it doesn’t work with (browserName).
The name of the mobile web browser is provided for automation in this capability. Users can utilize this capability, for instance, to choose the browser they wish to test their web application on to automate them. Users can avoid using the appium:app capability if they use this one.
When testing an application, this capability specifies the type of mobile device or emulator to use. Although it is still necessary, this capability is not used internally in Android. In the case of iOS, it is utilized to locate the target device. Therefore, users must take care to enter the proper device name for iOS.
Here, the value is by default set to false. If the value of this capability is set to true, it will tell the driver to skip applying any clean-up or reset logic at the beginning of the session. During this session, avoid resetting the app state.
If this capability is set to true, the Appium Server will be told to completely reset the device by erasing any temporary data left over from earlier executions. It can involve uninstalling any previously installed applications and clearing off any old device records.
Even though this capability does a full reset, Appium will not just delete all of the device’s data. When the test is run, only the files produced by Appium will be deleted. Maximum environmental reproductivity is therefore guaranteed.
The reporting of timings for certain Appium-internal events can be enabled or disabled using this capability. For instance, the beginning and the end of each command. If this capability is set to true, Appium will be told to gather all the event timing data for each event. The value is set to false by default.
When this capability is enabled, the user can get information about all the events and instructions that Appium has executed, as well as the timings when each of those events and commands was carried out.
Some commonly used Android capabilities
The preferred Java package for the Android app that the user wishes to run is specified by this capability.
When customers want to run an Android activity from their package, they must specify the activity name in this capability. Often, this needs to precede it with a dot (‘.’). Instead of (MainActivity), use (.MainActivity).
These are the activity name(s), separated by commas. Any Android activity that requires consumers to wait can make use of this capability.
It is the Android app’s Java package that users want to wait for. This capability’s value is set by default to be the same as that of appActivity.
This capability allows users to log performance reporting for the Chrome driver. Only Chrome and Web View will have logging enabled.
The option to adjust a device’s boot-up timeout in seconds is provided by this capability.
DevTools socket names are set using this capability. When a Chromium-embedding browser is being tested, it is just necessary. The browser opens a socket, and the ChromeDriver establishes a connection to it as a DevTools client.
Some commonly used iOS capabilities
This capability allows users to automatically accept all iOS alerts if they pop up. By using this, the user can automatically accept privacy access permission alerts for location, contacts, images, and other items.
It only works with a simulator. The iOS simulator’s calendar format is set using this capability.
A physical iOS device is identified by its unique device identification. When automating iOS physical device apps, this capability is utilized. It requires the specific device identity of the physically connected device on which the test will run. This ability is not required. If nothing is entered, it will automatically locate a device that has the other Appium capabilities.
During test startup, this capability is used to launch an app on a real device or to use other apps that need the bundle ID of the app. The user may skip the ‘app’ capability, but they must provide the ‘udid’ to execute a test on a real device using the bundle ID.
This capability sets how long to wait (in milliseconds) before assuming that an instrument has hung and the session has failed.
Location services are forced to be either on or off by this capability. It can only be used on a simulator.
It must give the bundleId using the bundleId capability to use this capability. To prevent a location services notice from appearing, it sets location services to be either authorized or not authorized for the app using Plist.
Setup Appium’s desired capabilities using LambdaTest for seamless test automation
Testers and developers may conduct effective, scalable, and seamless automation testing across a variety of platforms by utilizing LambdaTest’s Appium features. When paired with LambdaTest’s unmatched capabilities, Appium becomes an even more effective tool for testing mobile applications. This aids in obtaining the best testing outcomes and providing users with high-quality, reliable apps.
LambdaTest, an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform supports Appium for mobile app testing on a real device cloud. To interface with the Appium Server, LambdaTest sends a POST request using a default set of Desired Capabilities. When project settings are configured with the desired capabilities, the Appium server will begin a session with those capabilities.
LambdaTest supports cloud-based testing with Appium by providing access to more than 3000 real devices, browsers, and operating system combinations online for running both manual and automated tests. This lowers infrastructure costs and testing time by allowing testers to run test scripts on a variety of devices without having to purchase them. Additionally, this ensures cross-device compatibility testing, improving app reliability and user experience.
Testers can use Appium to test scalability and performance utilizing LambdaTest’s robust infrastructure. They may evaluate the performance of apps in real-world circumstances by simulating thousands of concurrent users across multiple network configurations and geographical locations.
Testers may smoothly combine testing of mobile apps and web applications because LambdaTest supports end-to-end testing scenarios with Appium. The broad coverage and consistency of test results are guaranteed by this unified strategy.
Appium desired Capabilities enable the indication of essential parameters. These settings specify the platform, browser, or app orientation that users wish to use when running mobile tests, as well as how they want the test sessions to operate. Therefore, it may be said that desired capabilities contribute to the application being launched in the intended environment with the desired capabilities.